Henri de Lubac - Biographical Information

Henri de Lubac
Henri de Lubac, S.J. (1896-1991) was a French Jesuit and one of the greatest theologians of the twentieth century. Born in Cambrai, France on February 20, 1896, he joined the Society of Jesus in Lyon on October 9, 1913. He served in the French army during the First World War, suffering severe wounds in combat. He was educated at the Jesuit Houses of study at Jersey and Fourvière, and then earned his doctorate in theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome.

De Lubac was ordained a priest on August 22, 1927, pursued further studies in Rome until 1929, and then became a faculty member at Catholic Faculties of Theology of Lyons, where he taught history of religions until 1961. His pupils included Jean Daniélou and Hans Urs von Balthasar.

In 1942 he co-founded, with Daniélou, Sources chrétiennes, a series of patristic texts with translations. During the Second World War he fought against Naziism and anti-Semiticism through his writings; he would recount those efforts and the efforts of the Church at large in Christian Resistance to Anti-Semitism: Memories from 1940-1944. He was finally forced to leave Lyon because of his involvement in the Resistance; he took refuge in Vals, near Puy.

During the 1950s de Lubac came under suspicion from the Vatican for his teachings about the supernatural and grace. He was eventually obligated to stop publication of his works because of doctrinal objections against his controversial book, Surnaturel. However, he continued his prolific output of other work, including studies on atheism, Buddhism, medieval biblical exegesis, ecclesiology, and the sacramental nature of Catholicism.

He became a member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in 1957 and a faculty member at the Catholic Institute of Paris two years later. He would then participate in Vatican II as a peritus, or theological expert, from 1962-5. The Oxford Dictionary of the Catholic Church states: "De Lubac was one of the thinkers who created the intellectual climate that made possible the Second Vatican Council, largely by opening up the vast spiritual resources of the Catholic tradition which had been cramped by post-Tridentine 'baroque' theology."

De Lubac was created cardinal deacon by Pope John Paul II on February 2, 1983 and received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, February 2, 1983. He died on September 4, 1991, Paris and is buried in a tomb of the Society of Jesus at the Vaugirard cemetery in Paris. His reflections on his life and writings are captured in his book, At the Service of the Church: Henri de Lubac Reflects on the Circumstances that Occasioned His Writings

Source: Ignatius Insight Author Page.

Introductions to Henri de Lubac, SJ

Articles on Henri de Lubac

Henri de Lubac in Communio: International Theological Review

  • Chantraine, Georges SJ. "Beyond Modernity and Postmodernity: The Thought of Henri de Lubac". 17, no. 2 (1990): 207-19.
  • Chantraine, Georges SJ. "Cardinal Henri de Lubac (1896-1991)." 18, no. 3 (1991): 297-303.
  • Coffele, Gianfranco. "De Lubac and the Theological Foundation of the Missions." 23, no. 4 (1996): 757-775.
  • D'Ambrosio, Marcellino. "Henri de Lubac and the Critique of Scientific Exegesis." 19, no. 3 (1992): 365-88.
  • Forte, Bruno. "Nature and Grace in Henri de Lubac: from Surnaturel to Le mystère du surnaturel." 23, no. 4 (1996): 725-37.
  • Healy, Nicholas J. "Henri de Lubac on Nature and Grace: A Note on Some Recent Contributions to the Debate." 35, no. 4 (2008): 535-564.
  • Körner, Bernhard. "Henri de Lubac and Fundamental Theology." 23, no. 4 (1996): 711-24.
  • Lubac, Henri de. "On the Death of Cardinal Danielou." 2, no. 1 (1975): 93-95 NC.
  • McPartlan, Paul. "The Eucharist, the Church and Evangelization: The Influence of Henri de Lubac." 23, no. 4 (1996): 776-85.
  • Moulins-Beaufort, Eric de. "The Spiritual Man in the Thought of Henri de Lubac." 25, no. 2 (1998): 287-302.
  • Moulins-Beaufort, Eric de. "The Spiritual Man in the Thought of Henri de Lubac." 25, no. 2 (1998): 287-302.
  • Moulins-Beaufort, Eric de. "Henri de Lubac, Reader of Dei Verbum." 28, no. 4 (2001): 669-94.
  • Murphy, William F. Jr. "Henri de Lubac's Mystical Tropology." 27, no. 1 (2000): 171-201 SH.
  • Riches, Aaron. "Church, Eucharist, and Predestination in Barth and de Lubac: Convergence and Divergence in Communio." 35, no. 4 (2008): 565-598.
  • Sicari, Antonio. "'Communio' in Henri de Lubac." 19, no. 3 (1992): 450-64.
  • Tilliette, Xavier, S.J. "Henri de Lubac: The Legacy of a Theologian." 19, no. 3 (1992): 332-41.
  • Voderholzer, Rudolf. "Dogma and History: Henri de Lubac and the Retrieval of Historicity." 28, no. 4 (2001): 648-68.
  • Walsh, Christopher. "De Lubac's Critique of the Postconciliar Church." 19, no. 3 (1992): 404-32.
  • Walsh, Christopher. "Henri de Lubac in Connecticut: Unpublished Conferences on Renewal in the Postconciliar Period." 23, no. 4 (1996): 786-805.
  • Wood, Susan. "The Nature-Grace Problematic Within Henri de Lubac's Christological Paradox." 19, no. 3 (1992): 389-403.

Additional Articles on De Lubac

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Books About Henri de Lubac

Surnaturel: A Controversy at the Heart of the Twentieth-Century Thomistic Thought (Faith and Reason: Studies in Catholic Theology and Philosophy)

Product Description

Serge-Thomas Bonino's Surnaturel: A Controversy at the Heart of Twentieth-Century Thomistic Thought contains four sections, guided by Bonino's insight that if in the year 2000 no one is any longer a Thomist in quite the same way he would have been in 1900 or 1945, it is partly because of Fr. de Lubac; In the first section, Etienne Fouilloux describes the arc of Henri de Lubac's career up to the publication of his Surnaturel; Georges Chantraine, S.J., describes de Lubac's Surnaturel; Henry Donneaud, O.P., describes the early Thomistic response to the book; and Rene Mougel depicts Jacques Maritain's position on the topic. In the second section, focusing on Thomas Aquinas and the medieval period, Michel Bastit inquires into the relationship of Thomism to Aristotle; Jean-Miguel Garrigues explores the grace of Christ; Serge-Thomas Bonino, O.P., describes the variety of medieval positions on nature and grace as seen in theological accounts of limbo; and Jean-Pierre Torrell, O.P., masterfully summarizes nature and grace according to Aquinas. The third section engages late-scholastic developments: Laurence Renault treats William of Ockham; Jacob Schmutz explores the shifting expositions of concurrence (divine and human causality) between the thirteenth and the seventeenth centuries; and Marie-Bruno Borde, O.C.D., presents the position of the Salmanticenses. Lastly, section four inquires into contemporary developments: Georges Cardinal Cottier, O.P., discusses natural mysticism and the theology of the religions; Gilbert Narcisse, O.P., traces the theme of grace in contemporary theology; Benoit-Dominique de La Soujeole, O.P., explores the situation of contemporary ecclesiology; and Bishop Andre-Mutien Leonard notes the value of the concept of;pure nature; within theological discussions.

Reviews

Henri de Lubac's 1946 Surnaturel set off a storm of controversy. Serge-Thomas Bonino's 2009 Surnaturel is likely to do the opposite. This carefully edited collection of essays will be met with gratitude across the theological spectrum. Meticulously translated by Robert Williams and Matthew Levering, the volume continues the discussion on pure nature and natural desire, initially set off by de Lubac's controversial book. The superb essays of this volume deal not just with de Lubac's own theological position, but also with his interpretation of St. Thomas, with medieval approaches to the issue of the supernatural, and with contemporary implications of the issue. For all those interested in de Lubac and in questions surrounding the nature-supernatural relationship, this book offers a wealth of insight. --Hans Boersma, Regent College, Vancouver, Canada

Thomists of various stripes famously disagree about how to interpret Aquinas thought on the question of the final ends of man. Is man naturally proportioned to the supernatural life of grace, and if so in what sense? This superb volume of essays is essential reading for anyone interested in the controversy surrounding Henri de Lubac's Surnaturel, his questionable understanding of Aquinas on this issue, and the theology of grace and nature more generally. The volume shows on multiple fronts in a dispute that is both charitable and academically rigorous why there is not yet acquired consensus on the historical and theological theses of Surnaturel, and many of the essays give nuanced critiques of de Lubac s views. This book will be theologically controversial, and influential, for some time to come. --Fr. Thomas Joseph White, O.P., Regent College

When the Jesuit theologian Henri de Lubac published Surnaturel in 1946, he irrevocably altered the Thomist understanding of grace. Even more, he changed Thomism itself, which now gives Thomas priority of place over his later commentators by embedding him in the patristic tradition he knew so well. Finally, and most crucially, man is now seen as inherently open to the supernatural. No longer is grace seen as topping out nature, like icing atop a layer cake. Unfortunately, de Lubac had made his case so convincingly that problems soon followed in his overpowering wake. After Vatican II, grace came to be seen as so intrinsic to man that the supernatural gifts of revelation, the Church, and the sacraments seemed, at best, merely symbolic reminders of an already realized redemption. Clearly the time has come, after the doldrums of the post-Vatican II Church, for a reassessment of Surnaturel, magnificently supplied here in this fascinating collection of essays by noted Carmelite, Dominican, Jesuit and lay scholars. Every chapter displays the art of the medieval disputatio to thrilling effect. As with medieval theology at its best, these contributions are all vigorously agued; but they are also uniformly charitable. This book is truly graceful in so many senses of that word. --Edward T. Oakes, S. J., Dominican House of Studies, Washington, DC

The Eucharist Makes the Church: Henri De Lubac and John Zizioulas in Dialogue
by Paul McPartian.

Reviews

Everything Is Sacred: Spiritual Exegesis in the Political Theology of Henri de Lubac (Theopolitical Visions)
by Brian C Hollon.
This is the definitive introduction to Henri de Lubacs spiritual interpretation of Scripture. Hollon addresses neglected aspects of de Lubacs theological renewal by examining the centrality and indispensability of spiritual exegesis in his work. In addition to exploring the historical and ecclesiastical context within which he worked, this book brings de Lubac into critical engagement with the more recent theological movements of postliberalism and radical orthodoxy.
Meet Henri De Lubac
This work traces the life and writings of this French Jesuit priest, revealing the importance and brilliance of de Lubac's works, the holiness of his life, and his deep love for the Church, which sometimes persecuted this faithful son and devoted priest. Pope John Paul II, who had the highest esteem for de Lubac, stopped his address during a major talk and acknowleged the presence of de Lubac saying, "I bow my head to Father Henri de Lubac." Subsequently, the Pope appointed the holy and beloved theologian a Cardinal. This book reveals who this great Churchman and theologian was, and the importance of his writings.

Related

  • The Cardinal, by Rudolf Voderholzer. (Excerpt from Meet Henri de Lubac: His Life and Work).
The Suspended Middle: Henri De Lubac And The Debate Concerning The Supernatural
French Jesuit Henri de Lubac (1896–1991) was arguably the most revolutionary theologian of the twentieth century. He proposed that Western theology since the early modern period had lost sight of the key to integrating faith and reason — the truth that all human beings are naturally oriented toward the supernatural.

In this vital book John Milbank defends de Lubac’s claim and pushes it to a more radical extreme. The Suspended Middle shows how such a claim entails a ‘non-ontology’ suspended between rational philosophy and revealed theology, interweaving the two while denying them any pure autonomy from each other.

As de Lubac’s writings on the supernatural implicitly dismantled the reigning Catholic (and perhaps Protestant) assumptions about Christian intellectual reflection, he met with opposition and even papal censure. Milbank’s sophisticated account of de Lubac delineates the French theologian’s relations with other proponents of the nouvelle théologie, such as Hans Urs von Balthasar, and clarifies the subtle but crucial divisions within recent Roman Catholic theology.

The most substantial treatment in English of de Lubac’s as yet untranslated Surnaturel and the subsequent debate, Milbank’s Suspended Middle lays down an energetic challenge that every serious student of theology and Christian philosophy will want to engage.

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The Theology of Henri De Lubac: An Overview (Communio Books)
by Hans Urs von Balthasar
Hans Urs von Balthasar prepared this overview of the theology and spirituality of Henri de Lubac, whom he calls friend and master, on the occasion of the latters's eightieth birthday. Beginning with personal reflections drawn from the then unpublished pages of "memoirs" which de Lubac placed in his hands, von Balthasar offers a review of all the major works of de Lubac.

Von Balthasar illustrates here the wonderful synthetic power for which he is justly known: bringing the range as well as the organic unity of de Lubac's work clearly into view. The main themes of that work remain as important now as when de Lubac first took them up--perhaps even more important. And there is no one better able to discuss these themes than von Balthasar, a master of theology in his own right and de Lubac's great friend for over fifty years. Co-published with Communio Books.

"Von Balthasar provides us with an astonishing summary of the massive theological output of Henri de Lubac. Perhaps it would not be an exaggeration to say that here we have one theological giant synthesizing the ecclesiocentric thought of another giant. The book offers a double benefit, for in it we get a glimpse of two great contemporary theologians—de Lubac and von Balthasar."

— Fr. Kenneth Baker, S.J., Editor, Homiletic and Pastoral Review

Books by Henri De Lubac

At the Service of the Church: Henri Lubac Reflects on the Circumstances That Occasioned His Writings
In the words of Hans Urs von Balthasar, this memoir ``explains the genesis, meaning and fate of the books of Father de Lubac, and situates them within the course of the various stages of his life, his studies, his meetings, his friendships as well as his legendary exiles and banishment." Written by one whose life intertwined deeply with the great personalities and events of the pre- and post-Vatican II periods, the book provides a unique perspective on the intellectual and religious life of the Church and indeed European culture during these exciting times. De Lubac says that ``it is not without embarrassment, or even more than that, that I transcribe some of the texts in which I am too central a figure. But I have not wanted, through some subjective consideration, to omit anything that might help to shed some light on the matters concerned. Because of the circumstances, from beginning to end, the point of view is strictly personal."

In this book one finds an honest spirit that is without bitterness and self-pity, that on the contrary witnesses to a profound love of God and the Church. This book provides a perspective that simply cannot be found elsewhere. Co-published with Communio Books.

Brief Catechesis on Nature and Grace
The great twentieth-century theologian, Henri de Lubac, sought to clarify the relationship between nature and grace, a relationship that he thought had been greatly misunderstood by certain theologians. De Lubac’s insights revolutionized the modern discussion of nature and grace, and it influenced thinkers such as Pope John Paul II and Benedict XVI, as well as Hans urs Von Balthasar.

This book, written after the Second Vatican Council and toward the end of de Lubac’s long life, summarizes and extends key ideas he sought to recover from the classical sources of early and medieval Christianity. De Lubac revisits the theme of his work, Surnatural, as well as its development in his later works, while addressing issues of the post-Vatican II era. Confronted with distortions of Christian teaching, de Lubac repudiates the extremes of, on the one hand, radically opposing nature and grace, as if the grace were entirely alien to nature, and on the other hand, of radically confusing them.

A Brief Catechesis on Nature and Grace also contains appendices, including de Lubac’s famous discussion, “The Council and the Parachurch”, in which he examines widespread misinterpretations of the Second Vatican Council.

Catholicism: Christ and the Common Destiny of Man
With a Foreword by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger/Pope Benedict XVI

This book first appeared just over fifty years ago. It is the pilgrimatic work of one of the 20th century's greatest theologians. Deeply rooted in tradition, it breaks ground and sows seeds which will bear their fruit in the Second Vatican Council's central documents on the Church. Here, Henri de Lubac, one of the giants of 20th century theology, gathers from throughout the breadth and length of Catholic tradition elements which he synthesizes to show the essentially social and historical character of the Catholic Church and how this worldwide and agelong dimension of the Church is the only adequate matrix for the fulfillment of the person within society and the transcendence of the person towards God. This book is a classic that deserves to be read and reread by every educated Catholic.

"For me, the encounter with this book became an essential milestone on my theological journey. For in it de Lubac does not treat merely isolated questions. He makes visible to us in a new way the fundamental intuition of Christian Faith so that from this inner core all the paricular elements appear in a new light."

— Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger/Pope Benedict XVI

"Few of our living authors have given us a work at once so profound, so apt and so persuasive as this of the great French Jesuit. Certainly, few could have written the book on the basis of such a rich knowledge of the Christian tradition.... De Lubac's thought has the originality which springs from the contact with a great tradition of a brilliant, deep and charitable mind. And it has a contemporaneity that bears witness to a profound, all-embracing, human concern."

— Dom Christopher Butler, Abbot of Downside

"We cannot leave it without referring to its almost incredible comprehensiveness of view. De Lubac writes of the Church in such a way as to allow fully for the truth there is in Protestant or Liberal views of the Christian society."

Church Times

Christian Faith: An Essay on the Structure of the Apostles' Creed
De Lubac shows that Christian Tradition is a living force and in the Apostle's Creed there is both depth and relevance for today's understanding of the Christian message.

Related

  • The Creed and the Trinity, by Henri de Lubac | Foreword to The Christian Faith: An Essay on the Structure Of the Apostles' Creed
Christian Resistance to Anti Semitism: Memories from 1940 1944
The Discovery of God (Resourcement (Grand Rapids, Mich.)
Henri de Lubac played a major role in nearly all of the theological debates within Roman Catholicism during the twentieth century. Educated in the renewed Thomism of Blondel, Rousselot, and Maréchal, he urged a return to the church fathers, cofounding Sources chrétiennes, and important series of patristic texts with translations. The Discovery of God contains the guiding thread of all of de Lubac's work: the idea of God and the life of the spirit.

In this important volume one finds the ultimate justification for de Lubac's positions against the atheisms of East and West. The book stands as a gloss on this dictum of Thomas Aquinas: “In every act of thought and will, God is also thought and willed implicitly.” Although his book provoked much controversy at the time of its original publication, de Lubac insisted that its intention was simply to draw on the double treasure of the philosophia perennis and Christian experience in order “to lend a helping hand to a few people in their search for God.”

Drama of Atheist Humanism
De Lubac traces the origin of 19th century attempts to construct a humanism apart from God, the sources of contemporary atheism which purports to have "moved beyond God." The three persons he focuses on are Feuerbach, who greatly influenced Marx; Nietzsche, who represents nihilism; and Comte, who is the father of all forms of positivism. He then shows that the only one who really responded to this ideology was Dostoevsky, a kind of prophet who criticizes in his novels this attempt to have a society without God. Despite their historical and scholarly appearance, de Lubac's work clearly refers to the present. As he investigates the sources of modern atheism, particularly in its claim to have definitely moved beyond the idea of God, he is thinking of an ideology prevalent today in East and West which regards the Christian faith as a completely outdated.

Related

History and Spirit: The Understanding of Scripture According to Origen
Origen (185-ca. 254), one of the most prolific and influential of the early Church Fathers, is best known to us for his Scripture exegesis. Henri de Lubac’s History and Spirit is a landmark study of Origen’s understanding of Scripture and his exegetical methods. In exploring Origen’s efforts to interpret the four different senses of Scripture, de Lubac leads the reader through an immense and varied work to its center: Christ the Word.

As Hans Urs von Balthasar said in discussing this seminal work: “The theory of the senses of Scripture is not a curiosity of the history of theology but an instrument for seeking out the most profound articulations of salvation history...” (From the book The Theology of Henri de Lubac.)

What the reader finds on this journey is not only, then, a fascinating view of the mind and spirit of an important Father of the Church, but an essential key to a more profound understanding of the way in which Christ speaks to us through Scripture.

Letters of Etienne Gilson to Henri De Lubac
Ignatius Press (April 1998)
Medieval Exegesis Vol 1 (Ressourcement: Retrieval & Renewal in Catholic Thought)
Henri de Lubac's four-volume study of medieval exegesis and theology is one of the most significant works in modern biblical studies. Now available for the first time in English, this volume stands on its own as an introduction and overview of the subject. It will be an essential addition to the libraries of all those studying in any field of biblical interpretation.

Reviews

Medieval Exegesis, vol. 2: The Four Senses of Scripture (Retrieval & Renewal Ressourcement in Catholic Thought)
Originally published in French as Exégèse médiévale, Henri de Lubac’s multivolume study of medieval exegesis and theology has remained one of the most significant works of modern biblical studies. Available now for the first time in English, this long-sought-after volume is an essential addition to the library of those whose study leads them into the difficult field of biblical interpretation.

The first volume in de Lubac’s multivolume work begins his comprehensive historical and literary study of the way Scripture was interpreted by the church of the Latin Middle Ages.

Examining the prominent commentators of the Middle Ages and their texts, de Lubac discusses the medieval approach to biblical interpretation that sought “the four senses” of Scripture, especially the dominant practice of attempting to uncover Scripture’s allegorical meaning. Though Bible interpreters from the Enlightenment era on have criticized such allegorizing as part of the “naivete of the Middle Ages,” de Lubac insists that a full understanding of this ancient Christian exegesis provides important insights for us today.

Medieval Exegesis, vol. 3: The Four Senses of Scripture (Retrieval & Renewal Ressourcement in Catholic Thought)
For many years biblical scholars were convinced that the Middle Ages was marked by a so-called pre-critical understanding of the Bible, with only a handful of isolated exceptions — like Andrew of St. Victor — popping up as precursors of the historical-critical method. Here, however, Henri de Lubac draws on extensive documentation to demonstrate that even among the Victorines traditional exegesis involving an interplay between the literal and spiritual senses of Scripture is a constant throughout medieval exegesis. The one exception — a radically important one, de Lubac readily admits — was Joachim of Flora, whose doctrine is considered in the final chapter of this volume.

This third English volume of de Lubac's monumental Medieval Exegesis covers volume 2, part 1 of his French volume and includes both the original Latin notes and an English version of the sources.

More Paradoxes
Following up his first book, Paradoxes of Faith, containing wonderful, short reflections on themes of Christianity and the spiritual life, this second book presents more thought-provoking gems that once again illustrate the magnificent language, clarity, spiritual understanding and shrewd discernment of the great theologian and spiritual writer Henri de Lubac, S.J.

These insights by Father de Lubac on a variety of subjects are rich and profound meditations, aphorisms and pieces of wisdom that express the freshness, incongruities and challenges of life. This is a book of inspiration by a master of the spiritual life that provides excellent material for prayer and meditation, as well as great homily ideas for the clergy.

The Motherhood of the Church: Followed by Particular Churches in the Universal Church
Priests are called "Father" and the Church is called "Mother". Our "Holy Mother the Church" is a traditional way of speaking among Catholics. But are these outdated, sentimental expressions? Or do they express a deep insight into the nature of the Church as a whole and of ordained ministry in relation to the Church? Is there a genuine theological meaning to the traditional reference to the Church as "she"?

Henri de Lubac addresses such questions with his usual profound erudition. He deeply mines the Christian tradition in examining the Motherhood of the Church. Focusing on the Church's Motherhood allows this great theologian to unite two profound truths: the Church is the Bride of Christ and the Church is Christ's Mystical Body. As de Lubac shows, the Church cannot be rightly considered apart from Christ and his saving work, both of which should be understood in light of the mystery of the Church's maternity.

Related

Paradoxes of Faith
A collection of profound aphorisms and reflections that are the fruit of de Lubac’s study over the course of his life on the themes of Christianity. They are rich and thought-provoking gems, spiritual aphorisms, and meditative reflections that express the freshness, and tensions of the spiritual life.
Splendor of the Church
Considered by many the bright jewel among the many enriching books of Cardinal Henri de Lubac, this work is a hymn to the beauty of the Church, under some of whose leaders for a time he unjustly suffered. The Splendor of the Church is, in a sense, a personal testimony of the great theologian's humility and love of the Church of Christ. It is also a classic work in the theology of the Church. Indeed, de Lubac's profound insights significantly contributed to Vatican II's Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen Gentium, especially in its treatment on the Church as mystery and as the Sacrament of Christ.
Scripture in the Tradition (Milestones in Catholic Theology)
A presentation of the main themes of de Lubrac's monumental study where he demonstrates that forms of scriptural exegesis are part of the ongoing reflective life of God and the process by which the human race learns to share its mystery.

Reviews

Theology in History: The Light of Christ, Disputed Questions and Resistance to Nazism
The unique insight and impressive scholarship of the eminent French theologian Cardinal Henri de Lubac are clearly evident in this volume of collected articles and essays. An article of great timeliness on the priesthood according to St. John Chrysostom as well as an important study of the long debate over the salvation of Origen are among the texts included in the first section, devoted to patristics and Christian humanism. The second section, comprised entirely of an unpublished work on tripartite anthropology tracing the body-soul-spirit distinction from St. Paul, the patristic tradition, St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas, up to the modern period, will prove an invaluable guide for further study and reflection. The section concludes with a beautiful text entitled "The Light of Christ", a prayerful meditation written during the dark hours of Nazi domination. Section three deals with disputed theological questions such as the internal causes of the disappearance of the sense of the sacred, the mystery of the supernatural, and the development of dogma. He also has a section on Christian resistance to Nazism and anti-semitism, as well as two sections on the thought and writings of several important modern spiritual writers.